‘DNA Printing’ in the Cloud, Part 3 | Emerging Tech

‘DNA Printing’ within the Cloud, Half 1

‘DNA Printing’ within the Cloud, Half 2

DNA printing has given rise to the world’s first “DNA printer” in the marketplace, a declare superior by the product’s creators. The
BioXp 3200 System is offered from SGI-DNA, a division of Artificial Genomics, a San Diego biotechnology firm.

The BioXp 3200 System is a DNA/RNA assembler and synthesizer made out of metal, glass, plastic, insulated wire, laboratory devices and microprocessors. The system is concerning the dimension of a enterprise workplace community laser printer, however as a substitute of outputting printed onerous copy, this system copies genes and outputs proteins.

The BioXp 3200 is a benchtop automated private genomic workstation that gives researchers with purposes in artificial biology, together with protein manufacturing, antibody library technology and cell engineering, in line with its producer.

With its assembly-and-cloning module, the BioXp system can generate linear DNA fragments from custom-designed swimming pools of “oligo” (brief fragments) nucleotides and reagents (biologically energetic substances), and may ship cloned DNA from a DNA sequence in an in a single day run.

The method makes use of Gibson Meeting, an industry-standard molecular cloning methodology that permits the becoming a member of of a number of DNA fragments in a single, isothermal (fixed temperature) response.

The system is cybergenomic and cyberproteomic — every BioXp unit is provided with an onboard laptop related to the Web. The method begins with sequence knowledge electronically transmitted from anyplace on the planet.

SGI-DNA clients start by inserting their order and importing their sequences to SGI. SGI will construct and ship kits to clients who, as soon as they obtain a package, load the deck and shut the instrument.

An onboard digital camera reads the bar code on the reagent bundle and pulls the suitable optimized protocol from the cloud. DNA meeting begins, and runs typically take between 12 and 17 hours, relying on the exact nature of the assemble being synthesized — an artificially constructed phase of nucleic acid (DNA) that’s to be transplanted right into a goal tissue or cell for protein manufacturing.

Dandelion Artificial Rubber – OSU

The fashionable world runs on pure rubber, an indispensable commodity in ever shorter provide.

About 70 per cent of pure rubber latex is used for car tires wrapped across the wheels of vehicles, vans and bicycles, in line with
Rubber World Journal. Different merchandise manufactured from pure rubber embrace mattresses, condoms, shoe soles, scorching water bottles, balloons, rubber boots and seal rings. Pure rubber will be substituted by artificial rubber for some purposes, however airplane tires, as an illustration, would explode upon touchdown if manufactured from artificial supplies.

The most important business supply of pure rubber latex is the Par rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis), a member of the spurge household, Euphorbiaceae. This species is most well-liked as a result of it grows effectively underneath cultivation. A correctly managed tree responds to wounding by producing extra latex for a number of years.

Though the rubber tree is native to South America, solely three % of the worldwide pure rubber manufacturing befell in all of North, Central and South America as of 2016. The overwhelming majority of pure rubber is produced in Asia.

Nevertheless, a worldwide pure rubber scarcity is looming. World consumption of pure rubber grew 5.2 % within the first seven months of 2018, in contrast with development of three.7 % in world pure rubber provide, in line with the
Affiliation of Pure Rubber Producing Nations (ANRPC).

Pure rubber manufacturing has been impacted negatively not solely by cyclical market costs, but in addition by environmental circumstances equivalent to local weather change, resulting in each flooding and aridity, plant pests and illness, and deforestation. Rain forests are being felled at an alarming charge to offer plantation acreage for rising rubber timber.

Options to sturdy, dependable pure rubber are being sought, and one answer is dandelions.

OSU Bio-Emergent Supplies

Katrina Cornish is the endowed chair and Ohio scholar in bio-emergent supplies on the Ohio State College’s Ohio Agricultural Analysis and Improvement Heart (0ARDC) in Wooster, Ohio.

Cornish heads up the Cornish Lab, the place breeding and growth work has been carried out on Taraxacum kok-saghyzis, or TK,a species of dandelion native to Kazakhstan within the Russian steppes. TK is a plant notable for its manufacturing of top quality rubber. Latex produced within the roots of the plant has properties similar to Hevea rubber latex.

The lab does direct manipulation of the plant’s genes with novel genetic engineering methods, utilizing the SGI-DNA BioXp 3200 DNA printer for gene insertion and enhancing.

In a February 2018
research, Cornish and OSU colleagues described the hybridization potential between TK and the widespread dandelion Taraxacum officinale, or TO, which required the usage of recombinant DNA know-how.

The Cornish lab has partnered completely with American Sustainable Rubber (ASR) to develop a hybrid cultivar of the TK dandelion that’s genetically engineered to be grown year-round indoors domestically, using business scale vertical hydroponic (liquid nutrient) managed atmosphere agriculture (CEA) know-how.

The objective of the lab’s joint analysis with ASR on the TK dandelion is to attain a rise of pure rubber content material from the present stage of lower than 10 % to greater than 20 % within the dry dandelion root mass, successfully decreasing the required dimension and upfront capital funding and annual working expense of a commercial-scale manufacturing facility by greater than 50 %, whereas concurrently bettering annual manufacturing effectivity and profitability.

“As soon as we perceive the regulatory bottlenecks that restrict the quantity of rubber my rubber dandelions make, we could possibly use this know-how to open them up and enhance rubber yield whereas nonetheless producing a wholesome crop,” Cornish advised TechNewsWorld.

Lettuce Vaccines

Influenza, a viral illness handed from individual to individual by contact with respiratory droplets, sometimes is handled prematurely of an infection with vaccines used as a safety measure to confer immunity in opposition to the flu virus.

Like all disease-bearing organisms, flu viruses produce antigens — international particles, often proteins, able to producing within the physique immunogenicity — an immune system response.

The physique’s immunogenic response consists of particular antibodies generated by plasma cells on account of publicity to specific parts of the antigen referred to as “antigenic determinants,” or “epitopes.” These small, particular parts of antigen are acknowledged by immune system components, primarily antibodies — blood proteins produced in response to and counteracting a selected antigen.

A single antigen often shows a number of completely different epitopes. The area on an antibody that acknowledges a selected epitope is known as its corresponding “paratope.” Antibody paratopes match precisely with and bind to particular antigen epitopes.

Up to now, the U.S. Meals and Drug Administration (FDA) required that flu vaccines be developed utilizing fertilized rooster eggs as hosts for rising the influenza virus. That’s now not the case.

One post-egg know-how for flu vaccines authorized to be used within the U.S. market in 2013 includes utilizing recombinant protein know-how. This rDNA vaccine manufacturing methodology doesn’t use rooster eggs in any respect within the course of. As a substitute, producers isolate a sure gene (the hemagglutinin “HA” or neuraminidase “NA” gene) from a naturally occurring, or “wild sort,” advisable vaccine virus.

Flublok from
Sanofi Pasteur, authorized by the FDA to be used in individuals 18 years of age and older, is a vaccine containing recombinant proteins indicated for energetic immunization in opposition to illness brought on by influenza A virus subtypes and influenza sort B virus contained within the vaccine.

Flublok is made by taking the genetic info from one HA flu virus protein and placing it into cultured cells which can be grown in stainless-steel tanks.

Viral vaccines additionally will be plant-made, or “biofarmed.”

Plant genetic engineering know-how was established many years in the past, however now biofarmed prescribed drugs and vaccines are quick approaching commercialization.

Plant genomics is the a part of molecular biology working with the construction, operate, evolution and mapping of genomes in crops. Though crops are harder to work with than micro organism, gene insertions will be made into single plant cells, and the cells then will be cultivated to kind a mature plant.

The most important methodology for inserting genes into plant cells is thru the usage of plasmids, replicating bacterial DNA segments exterior of cell chromosomes.

Transgenic crops are crops which have been genetically engineered, a breeding strategy that makes use of recombinant DNA methods to create crops with new traits. They’re recognized as a category of genetically modified organism (GMO).

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a globally essential leafy vegetable that has been utilized in analysis on the steady expression of transgenes. Lettuce transgenic analysis carried out thus far has targeted primarily on bettering the dietary and physiological worth of lettuce.

Now lettuce has joined crops like tobacco and potatoes, generally used as bioreactors producing pharmaceutical protein and vaccines.

Within the strategy of recombinant protein know-how, an HA or NA gene is mixed with parts of one other virus that grows effectively in lettuce cells as a number for gene introduction. That is achieved in vitro within the laboratory through the use of tissue cultures of plant stem cells with a purpose to produce a desired protein.

Vaccines derived from this recombinant virus methodology include an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism antigen and sometimes is constructed from weakened or killed types of the virus, its toxins, or one among its floor proteins. The lettuce leaves carrying the organic vaccine substance then are freeze-dried and processed into capsules containing vaccine-laden lettuce leaf powder.

Natural Genomics Inc.

Ohio-based
Natural Genomics Inc. (OGI) has submitted a proposal for using the SGI-DNA BioXp 3200 system to the Common Influenza Vaccine Improvement Grand Problem, a program backed by the Invoice & Melinda Gates Basis and Google’s Larry Web page.

The Gates Basis and Web page have provided as much as US$12 million in funding as a part of a 2018 initiative to help the event of a common influenza vaccine. This system seeks to fund novel ideas that cut back flu’s world loss of life toll and considerably mitigate the persistent world pandemic flu risk.

DNA, by means of RNA, codes for the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain that types a protein. A peptide is a compound consisting of two or extra amino acids.

Peptide vaccines are a sexy different to traditional vaccines, as a result of they depend on the utilization of brief peptide fragments to engineer the induction of extremely focused immune responses, consequently avoiding allergenic and different opposed reactions (e.g., fever).

Peptides utilized in these vaccines are 20-30 amino acid sequences which can be synthesized to kind an immunogenic peptide molecule representing particular epitopes on the goal antigen.

OGI has taken a novel strategy to combating influenza with a “multi-valent peptide vaccine” created by genetically engineering hydroponically grown lettuce crops to elicit a higher immune response. These peptides are genetically engineered to focus on all the assorted 18 HA and 11 NA viral antigens and their epitopes that make up all influenza sub-types.

Vaccines developed by OGI are designed for oral consumption and will be distributed as capsules consisting of plant-based powder enclosed in a dissolvable gelatin capsule container.

“We’re using the SGI BioXp 3200 module to print vectors — transporting brokers — that we synthesize into lettuce plant stem cells that may be cultured into mature crops exhibiting the power to biologically produce vaccines,” defined Timothy Madden, CEO of OGI.

“Every head of lettuce serves as its personal particular person natural bioreactor through which manufacturing of the pharmaceutical compound takes place,” he advised TechNewsWorld.

A business scale manufacturing facility might produce hundreds of thousands of doses of specified vaccines yearly at a value aggressive with present vaccine manufacturing strategies, in line with Madden, and an encapsulated powder lettuce vaccine could possibly be dry saved at room temperature, making it preferrred for cargo and use in growing international locations for humanitarian functions.

SGI DBC

In Might 2017, Artificial Genomics, Inc. (SGI) introduced the event and operation of its Digital-to-Organic Converter (DBC) prototype that produces biologic compounds on demand with none human intervention.

The DBC integrates lots of the artificial biology instruments developed by Artificial Genomics for creating advanced artificial DNA, multi function totally automated unit.

One of many principal items within the DBC is the BioXP 3200 — the corporate’s artificial DNA assembler that’s already marketed around the globe to researchers who use it to create artificial DNA samples. The remainder of the weather within the DBC obtain and course of info.

“Like a fax machine, our digital organic converter is an instrument designed to obtain digitized directions — on this case, DNA code — and assemble the ‘genetic’ components for medication manufacturing,” stated Dan Gibson, Ph.D., vp, DNA know-how, at SGI.

Gibson spilled the beads (pun meant) on how his “organic transportation” idea works in his
2018 TED speak on ” construct artificial DNA and ship it throughout the Web.”

“We’re working to scale back the scale of the present DBC in order that in the future hospitals around the globe can simply ‘print’ personalised medicines for every of their sufferers, the identical manner medical doctors can simply and routinely draw blood or take an X-ray,” Gibson advised TechNewsWorld.

The DBC system accepts digital representations of DNA over the Web and reconstructs them on the spot utilizing the 4 chemical nitrogenous nucleotide bases present in DNA — adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine — the DNA constructing blocks of life derived from phosphoramidite sources.

Identical to a printer, the DBC wants cassettes, however as a substitute of containing coloured inks, the system makes use of bottles of chemical substances containing artificial DNA to be used within the DNA printing of proteins.


Ned Madden is a California-based advertising and marketing skilled and journalist who writes about know-how and business-related subjects. You may electronic mail him at nedmadden[at]cox[dot]internet.


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